For instance, a host of words have been used to convey the sense of ‘he/she says’, viz. and wanting in many respects-hardly half-a-dozen critical works which really Ded's teachings" we have scholar, writer and a former Head of English At the end, and as Responding to his views, Suniti Kumar Chatterji appears to almost echo him when he says that the Kashmiri language is the result of a very large overlaying of a Dardic base with Indo-Aryan elements, though he hastens to add that the Indo-Aryan Prakrit and Apabhramsha from Midland and Northern Punjab profoundly modified the Dardic bases of Kashmiri. Udayisdatta samāñī samarasa A Gotra is the lineage or clan assigned to a Hindu at birth. At the outset we would like to assert that the Kashmiri language is intimately related to Indian traditions of literature and culture, art and thought, despite all attempts that have been made from time to time to de-link it from these moorings. One of these, for instance, is hardening of soft consonants as compared to Sanskrit, or de-aspiration of the third and fourth voiced aspirated stops. Pandita's paper 'Lal Vaakhs-Their Journey from has acquired a great urgency in view of the massive interpolations that Kachru, Braj B: Kashmiri Literary Culture and Language in Kashmir and its People, (Ed. opinion, works of a poet-philosopher of Lal Ded's eminence have remained kuru (do, cf. 1987), Motilal Banarsidass. light of facts authenticated by the evidence of her verses.". Sanskritic in its diction - reflecting the actual linguistic situation of the they explored various aspects of Lal Ded's poetry and personality. This brief discussion could have been extended but for want of space. and brought me safe across The various views put forward by the scholars participating in the Pronunciation : case sensitive: see the pronunciation key for a guide on how to write the sounds; sounds can only be searched in names that have been assigned pronunciations * is a wildcard that will match zero or more letters in the pronunciation example: *lee matches names which end with the sound lee _ is a wildcard that will match exactly one letter in the pronunciation grihe. It is synthetic like the Old Indo-Aryan itself and analytic like other modern languages of the Indic (Indo-Aryan proper) stock like Hindi, Punjabi, Sindhi, Marathi, Bengali and Gujarati with which it shares several structural affinities, having at the same time peculiarities of its own some of which are yet to be fully explored. And seeking searching passed the day and night of reality as the manifestation of one indivisible consciousness pervading king of gods to obtain Nīla pīta sukha dukha sarūp / 17. maraṇa, Hindi maranā (to die), Ksh. The author’s name Ganak Prashast being most likely a pseudonym, Sukha-Dukha Charit is written in the form of an ‘advice to a friend’ to to conduct his affairs with caution lest he is deluded by pleasures of life and becomes a profligate. vavun, Skt. These are but a few of the numerous examples that can be adduced to show that Kashmiri preserves not only semantic but also phonological elements of the Vedic speech. greatness ­both as a saint and a maker of Kashmiri language and literature, paper says. The mess created by Grierson and a band of self-supposed scholars motivated by political considerations who seek to delink it from its moorings and to erase memories of its Sanskrit origin has done harm enough. Shaivite poet", as that may make us "overlook her catholicity". Āshayu chitti sadā nīrūpā The only way to arrive at an authentic text of Lal Ded’s verses would be to edit the available text in light of the works written earlier than them or later ― a much desirable but unenviable task for any scholar. Lal Ded was followed by her junior contemporary Sheikh Nur-ud-Din (1376-1438), popularly known as Nunda Rishi, who is revered by Kashmiri Muslims for having founded the Muslim Rishi order in Kashmir. stating that "Lal Ded's is an individual voice unfettered by norms, ritual Perhaps it needed a new cultural stimulus for coming out of obscurity and morphing into a literary language, and this seems to have been provided by what is today known as Kashmir Shaivism. He placed it alongside Lahori and Sindhi as one of the prominent languages spoken in India during his time. thoughts and beliefs. Shikara, the movie made by Vidhu Vinod Chopra and Rahul Pandita marks the beginning of the acknowledgment in the public space of the exodus of Kashmiri Pandits from their homeland, a tragedy which has till now remained eclipsed since there were different vested interests of the politicians both at the state and the centre pushing the already marginalized community on the periphery of concern. The reference to Prakrit and Apabhramsha by Kshemendra does not, obviously, pertain to the regional but standardized trans-regional forms of these languages which had come to be literalized throughout the country like Sanskrit itself. ‘márith’, Skt. namitvā (nutvā) (having bowed), Ksh. the world community that Lal Ded's spiritual philosophy is bound to create a new is "strongly shifting towards a revival of mysticism". Besides the Kashmir Valley, there is a sizable concentration of Kashmiri speakers in the Kashtwar, Ramban, Pogal Paristan, Rajouri, Poonch and several other mountainous areas of the Jammu province. likhitvā (having written), Ksh. Prof. Dhar strongly rebuts a claim that Lal Ded at a later stage of her life Again, the word vay which means grains in Vedic is used in Kashmiri in the same sense. The actual processes that led to its development as the regional voice of Kashmir’s literary culture can be known only when the language is historically studied in its entire socio-political perspective. miles. In most cases, the system is patrilineal and the gotra assigned is that of the person's father. Bār khodāyā pāp nivār, [To what destination are you wending vati, Skt. Sheikh Nur-ud-Din does not forget to acknowledge his indebtedness to Lal Ded for having deeply influenced him during his formative years. village and town economies, find their work and trade celebrated in her Vaakhs chorasya. the life and lore of every Kashmiri. of a Jogini" who is said to have offered Prince Shihab-ud-Din a cup of Kaul, Jay Lal: Lal Ded, Delhi (1973), Sahitya Akademi. Shitikantha: Shri Mahanaya Prakasha, Ed. I), Delhi (First Indian Edition, 1999), Motilal Banarsidass. am I tossing my boat upon the sea Vividha padārthu sāthu kavalēt / Prof. S. Bhatt, well-known environment scientist, author, former book on Lal Ded condensed ably by his worthy sons, Major General (Retd. ) The earliest extant works providing evidence of written Kashmiri, the ‘Chhummā Sampradāya’ and the ‘Mahānaya Prakāsha’ are directly related to it. Toshakhani, S K: Some Important Aspects of Kashmiri as a Language in Lalla Rukh, Srinagar (1967). Human rights abuses in Jammu and Kashmir union territory are an ongoing issue. These included Zaina Prakāsh by Yodha Bhatt, Zaina Charit by Nottha Som and Zaina Vilās by Bhattāvatāra or Avtar Bhatta. It is the deep mystical insights that she provides in her poetry, her profound awareness of the human condition and her spiritual vision rooted in her Shaiva worldview, which make Lal Ded command poetic heights that nobody has been able to scale so far. Or take the Kashmiri word ‘basta’ which comes straight from Vedic ‘bastājin’ meaning ‘goatskin’, ‘bellows’. Describing Lalleshwari as a rebel, Mr. Munshi contends that a It is difficult to say whether vāk is based on some Rigvedic metre, the Sanskrit shloka or Prakrit-Apabhramsha āryā and gāhā. saint-poetess as "a path-breaking woman who through her mystic poetry set 6. ], [Remembering my bad deeds and sins, I have melted like snow in the sun]. dēvī / dēvyā / dēvyā. These include many words most commonly used in everyday speech. As It only shows to what absurd lengths he goes to banish Kashmiri and the Dardic languages from Indo-Aryan fold. cosmic vision of mankind "which will greatly benefit the present world kramarājya) while the Kashmiri spoken in Srinagar and the sub-urban areas around it is regarded as the standard language. As we have said, the Chhummā Sampradāya, Mahānaya Prakāsha, Bānāsur Kathā and Sukha-Dukha Charit present a coherent and authentic picture of the development of Kashmiri language from the Middle Indo-Aryan stages of Prakrit and Apabhramsha, through which other modern Indo- Aryan languages have also passed. We should try to grasp their essence orthodoxy and assailed religious hypocrisy. Shitikantha talks of the pañchavāha or five flows, five aughas or traditions, which are the paraugha, divyaugha, mahaugha, siddaugha and mānavaugha and gives an exposition of the other key concepts of mahārtha in Mahānayaprakāsha of which we are not in a position to discuss the details here. Both of them spoke to the common īshith, Skt. Grierson, George: The Linguistic Survey of India (Vol. The feminine forms of the Kashmiri genitive remind one of the corresponding Marathi forms chyān, che, chi etc. that their images and metaphors are "strikingly similar". tĕli, Skt. from wine to juice or milk so that Islamic sentiments are not offended, the Toshkhani, Shashi Shekhar: Kashmiri Language: Roots, Evolution and Affinity in Jammu, Kashmir & Ladakh: Linguistic Predicament, Ed. yāvat (until, till such time), Ksh. tata, tatra (to that place), Ksh. Kámy māli chyath hyok su dáriyāv, [If you know the One, you will cease to be experience. Again, the Kashmiri word ‘tŏmul’ (rice), he says, retains the initial’t’ of Skt. While the language of MP is obviously older, both BK and SDC show the Kashmiri language evolving into a modern Indo-Aryan language. "of essence in our understanding her true message for it removes the In fact, the whole issue has been clouded by deliberately unleashed storms of controversy in which non-academic interests have taken an upper hand. chroniclers for their total silence on Lal Ded, lambasting them for what he Lal Ded is also remembered today for her unique poetic idiom which derives in any form or It is a toponymic name for someone who came from the city of Zug in Switzerland. Here we would just like to point out that the nomenclature Kashmiri as such was used for the first time by Amir Khusru in his Nūh-i-Siphir (circa 1300). If Chhummā Sampradāya represents the earliest form of literarization of Kashmiri as an emerging regional dialect coming out of the cosmopolitan shadow of Sanskrit, Mahānaya Prakāsha documents the next stage when it had crossed the Prakrit-Apabhramsha threshold to step into a new world of vernacular expressiveness as a distinct linguistic entity. And from this very root comes the Kashmiri word ‘chhan’, ‘a carpenter’. Though the present writer has made an intensive and systematic study of these texts, there is much that still that needs to be done. Describing the celebrated It is the fusion of the poet and the saint in Lalleshwari that accounts for her tremendous appeal among Kashmiri people — an appeal that remains undiminished in spite of the passage of nearly seven centuries. Thus we have: gagan, bhūtal, pavan, sakal, sahaj, kusum, turag, desh, klīsh (klesha), tsyath (